FACTS OF THE CASE:
Fred Phelps and his followers at the Westboro Baptist Church believe that God punishes the United States for its tolerance of homosexuality, particularly within the military. To demonstrate their beliefs, Phelps and his followers often picket at military funerals.
Albert Snyder’s son, Lance Corporal Matthew Snyder, was killed in the line of duty in Iraq in 2006. Westboro picketed Matthew Snyder’s funeral displaying signs that stated, for instance, “God Hates the USA/Thank God for 9/11,” “Thank God for Dead Soldiers,” and “Don’t Pray for the USA.” The church notified local authorities in advance that they intended to picket the funeral, staged the picket on public land adjacent to a public street, and complied with all police instructions. Church members also sang hymns and recited Bible verses.
Although Albert Snyder could see the tops of the picket signs on the day of the funeral, he could not read what was written on them and it was not until he saw a news story about the funeral and the picketing that he became aware of the church’s message. Snyder sued Phelps and the church claiming, among other things, that their actions caused him severe emotional distress. In defense, Phelps argued that his speech (the picketing and the signs) was protected under the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution.
The Supreme Court’s holding turned largely on its determination that the church was speaking on “matters of public concern” as opposed to “matters of purely private significance.” The Court explained that “[s]peech deals with matters of public concern when it can ‘be fairly considered as relating to any matter of political, social, or other concern to the community’ or when it ‘is a subject of general interest and of value and concern to the public.'” Speech on public issues is entitled to special protection under the First Amendment because it serves the “the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust, and wide-open.” To determine whether the speech dealt with matters of public concern, the Court examined the “content, form, and context” of the speech. The court noted that none of these factors determines the outcome of the case and that a court must evaluate all the circumstances of the speech, “including what was said, where it was said, and how it was said.”
Even though some of the picket signs arguably targeted only the Snyder family, most of them addressed issues regarding the moral conduct of the U.S., the fate of the U.S., and homosexuality in the military. As such, the “overall thrust and dominant theme” of the speech related to broader public issues. Furthermore, the church was picketing on public land adjacent to a public street. Finally, there was no pre-existing relationship between Westboro’s speech and Snyder that might suggest that the speech on public matters was intended to mask an attack on Snyder over a private matter. Therefore, the Court held that the Phelps and his followers were “speaking” on matters of public concern on public property and thus, were entitled to protection under the First Amendment.
Argued: October 6, 2010
Decided: March 2, 2011
Majority opinion written by Chief Justice Roberts and joined by Justices Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan.
Concurring opinion written by Justice Breyer.
Dissenting opinion written by Justice Alito.